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A tunnel in the Clean Area of the Yates Shaft “At Fernson, they’re working with different hops and temperatures and with ways of brewing for different flavors for the beer,” she said. “Different bacteria and micro-organisms are needed for producing the proper flavors. If you brew it too hot, it produces a barnyard flavor.” The next step could produce even more valuable information. “Researchers are working with DNA testing to find out what (beer) flavors different people can taste. They can then tailor flavors to them. You have a little card and pick out the flavors they like,” she said. “Right now, they’re at the point where the DNA sample is sent away. It takes a while to get the results. But in the future, they hope to process the DNA really fast.” The process can hold implications for obtaining faster DNA results, Schild said. At another Sioux Falls site, the Sanford research lab performs DNA testing for rare children’s diseases such as certain cancers and muscular dystrophy, she added. “At the Sanford Research Lab, they can take a skin sample and turn it into a stem cell. They can also turn it into a nerve cell or brain cell. It’s interesting how they can take one cell that’s already following instructions and be able to change it,” she said. “The (Sanford) Children’s Hospital sends a bunch of samples over to (the lab), if the parents give consent, so they can research Thermometer in the Sanford different things that affect children. They Underground Research Lab have researchers seeking cures.” The Sanford lab has taken on a very fluid approach in the areas where research takes them, Schild said. “They are researching a lot of different things. Some of it ends up working better for something else, so they switch over,” she said. A train car used in Sanford Underground “They have a lot of different stages Research Lab to transport researchers of testing before it even goes to human trials.” The research has already resulted in one benefit, Schild said. Test results come back in a day rather than a week. This summer’s experiences held a special fascination for Schild, who is entering the University of South Dakota. She is majoring in medical biology with a goal of becoming a physician. The Davis Bahcall Scholars in Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) near the Yates Shaft “I always wanted to be a doctor, since I was little. The medical biology program will prepare me well for medical school,” she said. “I’m already familiar with USD and its facilities. In high school, we made several trips to the medical school. We visited places like the cadaver lab, which was really interesting.” In addition, she credited the strong foundation provided at Yankton High School with its Science Olympiad team, Advanced Placement courses and the more recent Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA) program. Photoreceptors in the Particle “I want to be a practicing doctor, but Accelerator at Fermilab I’m also interested in a little bit of research,” she said. “I’m not as interested in physics, so I’m really glad that they broadened the scope (of the Davis-Bahcall Scholars) this year.” In The Dark For much of her scientific work this summer, Schild found herself Replica of the Particle Accelerator totally in the dark. She spent at Fermilab time far below the earth’s surface. She visited, among other places, the Sanford Deep Underground Laboratory in the Black Hills and the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. She also traveled to the the Fermi and Argonne labs in Chicago before jetting to Italy for a cultural as well as scientific experience. “I was super excited that I got to go to these different labs and to Italy,” she said. Few outsiders are allowed inside the underground lab in the Black Hills, which was the former Homestake Mine in Lead, Schild said. “My uncle, Brooks Schild, always wanted to go to the underground lab. He’s a science teacher and a National Guard officer, and he didn’t get in, but I did,” she said with a laugh. “They don’t allow a lot of the public to go into the underground lab. Usually, it’s someone like the governor.” When it comes to science, Schild said dark matter — well, matters. “It’s important learning about dark matter,” she said. “It helps us advance our science and to understand how the universe was created vSCIENCE continued on page 12 HERVOICEvSEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018v11

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